STUDI BANDING LABORATORIUM (KUNJUNGAN DOSEN JTE PNB KE PROGRAM STUDI DIPLOMA IV TEKNIK LISTRIK JTE PNUP)


Studi Banding ini dilaksanakan pada tanggal 7-9 Desember 2016 dengan pelaksana sebanyak 4 (empat) orang dosen Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Bali yakni: Kadek Amerta Yasa, ST, MT; I Gusti Putu Arka, ST, MT; I Made Purbhawa, ST, MT dan Dr. Anak Agung Ngurah Gde Sapteka. Studi Banding ini berlokasi di Program Studi Diploma IV Teknik Listrik, Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang (PNUP), Sulawesi Selatan dengan maksud untuk memperoleh informasi mengenai peralatan laboratorium dan pelaksanaan praktikum di D IV Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang. Informasi tentang peralatan laboratorium dan pelaksanaan praktikum ini diperlukan untuk mempersiapkan Jurusan Teknik Elektro (JTE), Politeknik Negeri Bali (PNB) dalam melaksanakan Program Studi Diploma IV Teknik Otomasi yang akan dilaksanakan pada Tahun Ajaran 2017/2018.

Berangkat studi banding bersama Kadek Amerta Yasa, I Gusti Putu Arka dan I Made Purbhawa.

Perjalanan ke lokasi Studi Banding dilakukan melalui jalur udara dari Bandar Udara Internasional I Gusti Ngurah Rai di Bali menuju Bandar Udara Internasional Sultan Hasanuddin di Maros, Sulawesi Selatan yang ditempuh selama 1 jam 15 menit.

Kunjungan Studi Banding Dosen Teknik Elektro Politeknik Negeri Bali ke Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang

Setiba di Kota Makassar (Ujung Pandang), selanjutnya pelaksana mempersiapkan diri dan tinggal di Hotel Swiss-BelHotel Makassar sebelum menuju ke Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang yang berlokasi di Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan, Tamalanrea, Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan. Lokasi kampus Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang berada dalam satu area dengan kampus Universitas Hasanuddin (Unhas) mengingat sejarah pendiriannya merupakan bagian dari Unhas pada tahun 1987 dengan nama Politeknik Universitas Hasannudin, yang selanjutnya berdiri sendiri pada tahun 1996/1997 dengan nama Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang. Politeknik ini memiliki 2 buah kampus, yaitu Kampus I Tamalanrea dan Kampus II BTP. Kampus I terletak di Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan KM. 10, sedangkan Kampus II terletak di Jl. Tamalanrea Raya (BTP). Pada saat ini, Kampus II Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang masih dalam tahap proses pembangunan.Kami sebagai pelaksana studi banding diterima oleh Ibu Dr. Hafsah Nirwana, Ketua Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang (PNUP). Beliau menjelaskan bahwa Teknik Elektro PNUP memiliki 6 Program Studi yang terdiri dari 3 Program Studi D IV dan 3 Program Studi D III yakni:

  • D IV Teknik Listrik,
  • D IV Teknik Komputer & Jaringan,
  • D IV Teknik Multimedia & Jaringan,
  • D III Teknik Listrik,
  • D III Teknik Telekomunikasi,
  • D III Teknik Elektronika.

Ketua Jurusan  juga memperkenalkan kami kepada para Ketua Program Studi di lingkungan Jurusan Teknik Elektro PNUP. Pada acara ramah tamah ini dilakukan pertukaran cenderamata.

Studi Banding ke Diploma IV Teknik Elektro Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang. Tukar menukar cenderamata dengan Ibu Kajur Teknik Elektro, Dr Hafsah Nirwana. Bersama Kadek Amerta Yasa, I Gusti Putu Arka dan I Made Purbhawa.

Program Studi Diploma IV Teknik Listrik PNUP secara resmi berdiri sejak tanggal 24 Januari 2011 berdasarkan SK Dirjen Dikti Departemen Pendidikan Nasional No : 24/D/O/2011. Adapun hal yang melatarbelakangi penyelenggaraan Program Diploma IV Teknik Listrik di Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang sebagai berikut: Banyaknya permintaan pasar terhadap karyawan yang lulus dengan kualifikasi   kompetensi bidang teknik listrik dengan level diploma IV; Belum adanya institusi pendidikan di Kawasan Timur Indonesia yang melaksanakan jalur pendidikan vokasi program diploma IV bidang teknik listrik; Adanya masalah krisis energi listrik di Kawasan Timur Indonesia terutama Sulawesi Selatan yang sangat membutuhkan tenaga engineer Teknik Listrik; Keputusan menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Nomor : 2052/K/40/MEM/2001 tentang standarisasi kompetensi ketenagalistrikan; Sudah terlaksananya MOU antara Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang dengan stakeholder di antaranya PT PLN (Persero) Wilayah SULSELRABAR, IATKI Wilayah SULSELRABAR, PT Semen Tonasa.

Untuk mendukung pelaksanaan perkuliahan D IV Program Studi Teknik Listrik, telah disiapkan beberapa laboratorium di lokasi Kampus I dan Kampus II. Adapun laboratorium yang tersedia antara lain:

1. Laboratorium Mesin-Mesin Listrik.
2. Laboratorium Otomasi Industri.
3. Laboratorium Sistem Tenaga Listrik.
4. Laboratorium Pengukuran Dasar.
5. Laboratorium Elektronika Digital dan Mikrokontroler.
6. Laboratorium Tegangan Menengah.
7. Bengkel Mekanik.
8. Bengkel Instalasi Tenaga Listrik.

Transmission and Distribution Line Model

Mesin Boiler di Jurusan Teknik Elektro Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang

Dokumentasi kunjungan dapat diakses melalui link https://www.flickr.com/photos/sapteka/albums/72157674324182704

Laporan Studi Banding dalam format pdf dapat diakses melalui link

Laporan Pelaksanaan Studi Banding Laboratorium di Jurusan Teknik Elektro (JTE) Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang (PNUP)

atau link berikut
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3EJmXc11M2Oc1k5UGdCUkFBYkk/view?usp=sharing

 


 

Cerita Tentang Pembuatan Peta Politeknik Negeri Bali (PNB)

Sebulan yang lalu saya ingin membuat peta digital Politeknik Negeri Bali (PNB) yang benar-benar baru dan berbeda. Tapi apa boleh buat, para guru besar memberi tugas-tugas harus didahulukan untuk dikerjakan. Saya juga diminta ke Denpasar untuk membantu Karang Taruna Satya Mahardika dalam lomba karang taruna kota Denpasar. Selain itu diperlukan banyak waktu ke PNB untuk melaporkan Penugasan Kembali serta mengajukan ijin Tugas Belajar S3 di Universitas Indonesia (UI). Sekembalinya ke Jakarta, kampus UI memberikan semangat baru untuk menyelesaikan peta ini. Sebagai mahasiswa S3 Teknik Elektro, saya memperoleh ruangan kerja tersendiri yang tenang, full ac, dengan dukungan koneksi internet kampus berkecepatan tinggi yang mampu mengakses berbagai jurnal internasional, bertempat di Gedung Engineering  Center FTUI . Pada ruangan ini juga disediakan water dispenser beserta teh, gula, dan kopi. Sungguh nyaman untuk berpikir dan bekerja dalam waktu lama. Kami menyebutnya ruang KD (Kandidat Doktor). Peta ini dibuat selama beberapa hari di ruang KD dengan konsekuensi pulang ke tempat kost yang semakin malam. Untunglah ada teman-teman yang bisa diajak pulang malam bersama, mengingat bis kuning UI, kendaraan dinas saya di UI, hanya beroperasi hingga pukul 21.00 WIB. Pernah saya merenung di ruang KD membayangkan selama belasan tahun saya bekerja sebagai di PNB, tidak juga dapat ruangan untuk bekerja  secanggih ini. Mungkin karena itu saya jadi jarang ke PNB dan lebih suka kerja sosial. Di Bali, kegiatan sosial kemasyarakatan sangat menarik bagi saya, sehingga saya pernah menjadi prajuru Banjar Catur Panca, lalu pernah ditugaskan sebagai pangemong Pura Jlih Lambih Pekambingan, serta juga dulu pernah aktif mengurus pecalang Tri Jaga Mandala, dan sekarang masih menjabat bendahara LPM Kelurahan Dauh Puri.  Aneh memang, karena sudah jelas pekerjaan sosial ini, PRnya banyak, tapi Rpnya sedikit. Malah sering harus keluar dari kantong sendiri. Lho, katanya cerita tentang Pembuatan Peta PNB, kenapa malah cerita  begini-begitu? Singkat cerita, setelah mencoba dengan berbagai cara, peta digital ini berhasil saya selesaikan walaupun masih perlu disempurnakan mengingat ada beberapa ruangan dan gedung di PNB yang hingga saat ini belum pernah saya kunjungi. Hasilnya dapat dilihat melalui link ini:

Link ke Peta Politeknik Negeri Bali

Mohon maaf jika ada bagian tulisan ini yang tidak berkenan di hati. Semoga peta ini bermanfaat untuk mengenalkan PNB kepada masyarakat melalui media internet.

Terima kasih kepada Dewa Gede Agus Tri Putra dan Fajar Surya Herlambang yang telah melengkapi informasi untuk peta  PNB ini. Juga untuk teman-teman yang telah melewati waktu bersama di Ruang KD, Gedung Engineering  Center FTUI.

Salam hormat saya kepada seluruh civitas akademika Politeknik Negeri Bali,

Anak Agung Ngurah Gde Sapteka.

Link ke Peta Politeknik Negeri Bali

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di bawah ini merupakan space iklan yang diisi secara otomatis oleh WordPress, bukan oleh saya…Terima kasih WordPress.

Jeroning Ancak Saji

This post is part of  Site Map of Puri Denpasar.

Jeroning Ancak Saji (read je – ro – nïng än – cäk sä – jï) was the first yard of the palace. There were 4 units of Bale (read Bä – lé) here, 1 unit of well, and 1 unit of high building at south-west Corner called Panggungan (read päng – gung – än). The Panggungan was equipped with some steps made from stone. The King or Cokorda (read Co – kor- de) usually went to Panggungan in the evening to watch the cockfighting, and the people who pass the road. The position was very strategic because it was located at the corner of the cross road to Kesiman, Sanur, Sesetan and Pamecutan. It’s also near from marketplace. So, at that time, Panggungan was one of many favourite places for Cokorda Denpasar to visit.

The picture below described the layout of Jeroning Ancak Saji. The area was about 46.50 m by 45.50 m.  At north, there was an entrance gate to Taman Narmada. At east, there was an entrance gate (Sawangan Kembar) to Loteng Pesanggrahan.

Site Map of Puri Denpasar in Year 1906

Puri (read pu – rï) means balinese palace where the king and his family lives and rules his kingdom. Denpasar (read Den – pä – sär) is one of many kingdoms in Bali. So, Puri Denpasar means the palace of the king of Denpasar. It was located in the centre of Denpasar City. It was? Yes, because this old Puri was destroyed by Dutsch while they conquer the Kingdom of Denpasar in year 1906. Now in this site has been built as the residential of Governor of Bali in Surapati Street, Denpasar, Bali.

The Puri Denpasar has 171 meters length and 158 meters width. It has a thick wall, about 1,5 meters and 6 meters height. To enter the Puri, there are two dignified gates at west and south side of it. Inside it, the yards are separated by walls.The buildings were built from stones. Many of them have their own verandah. A lot of buildings in this palace and also a beautiful park called Taman Narmada.


Do you want to see and have more information about Puri Denpasar? Click here to enter the entrance gate.

My Internet Connection, Telkomspeedy

Telkomspeedy is an internet connection service using Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) technology provided by Telkom Indonesia. The ADSL technology ables automatically connect ADSL modem to server using Telkom telephone line. An ADSL modem provided with a splitter which enables costumer to make or receive phone call when Internet connection is active.

I have been using Telkomspeedy since December, 2007. I remember,  it was a slow ADSL connection. Sometimes, it made me hungry and angry when I used it to browse.  Usually  it was only 7 KB/sec to download using Mozilla Firefox at home. When I visited the promo at Telkom Building located at Jalan Teuku Umar, Denpasar, the browser showed only 3 to 4 KB/sec…. Well, It was a hard time for the salesman to sell Telkomspeedy since it was too slowwwwww. But I agreed to subscribe because Telkom is an Indonesian State-Owned Company.

One day in August 2008, a staff of Telkomspeedy called me and she asked me about Telkomspeedy service and said on behalf of PT Telkom she thanked me to use Telkomspeedy connection. I taught, it just a lip service since I usually called Telkomspeedy costumer care when the connection down. But I felt something different when I downloaded an open source flight simulator from FlightGear. The Telkomspeedy is faster than before…. The browser shows 42.6 KB/sec at 8.00 am using Prolink H9200J ADSL modem. Never since I described the connection I have got this speed. Yes, it is true and I never call 147 (the phone number to report or complaint about Telkomspeedy where I never spoke softly) again.

Telkomspeedy 42.6 KB/sec

Telkomspeedy is downloading at 42.6 KB/sec

Now I am enjoy watching video from internet with Telkomspeedy. Thanks for the service.

By Sapteka, http://www.sapteka.net

Kelurahan Dauh Puri Celebrate The Indonesia Independence Day

Lot of work to do in this month. The village or Kelurahan Dauh Puri
of Denpasar Bali celebrate the 63th anniverary of Indonesia
Independence Day on August 18, 2008 with Torch Festival and Bamboo Climbing
events .

The Torch Festival started at 19.00 pm on August 16. During the event, the
people walked around the Kelurahan area and carried a bamboo torch start from
Buru Street to Diponegoro Street, Hasanudin Street, Mayjen Sutoyo Street, PB.
Sudirman Street, Yos Sudarso Street, Diponegoro Street, Nusakambangan Street
and finish at Kelurahan Office. At the end of the festival, a lot of
door prizes given by bussinessmen and companies in Dauh Puri were drawn. The
poeple were very happy when they got some umbrellas, bags, shoes, DVD Player,
Television Set and many other things and left the Kelurahan Office at
about 10.00 pm.

After supper, we continued our work to to prepare the Bamboo Climbing event.
Two bamboo poles were brought from Kelurahan Office to Tragia Area. The
bamboos were carried by Pecalang Trijaga Mandala. At Tragia Area we started to
dig a hole for bamboo position and tied the gift on bamboo. Each bamboo has 24
black plastic bags of gift. It was a hard work for Pecalang Trijaga Mandala to
dig some holes at Tragia Area. We found no problem at the first dig and the
bamboo pole was succesfully erected. But not for the second one. We failed to
dig a hole for the second bamboo due to stonelike building material laid under
the soil. It could be from the ex building of a jail before the Tragia Shopping
Centre was built. We moved to another position and start to dig but failed
again……. At the fifth position we succesfully dig a hole for the second
bamboo. Thanks to Pecalang Trijaga Mandala for their help.
On August 17, at 10.00 pm the people came to Bamboo Climbing event. There
were some groups of youth prepared to climb the bamboos. It was not easy to do
since both bamboss has been with filled with oil! The oily bamboo surface often
caused the climbers sliding down and made the event full of joy. After some
trials the climbers are able to reach the top of bamboo pole and to drop down the
gifts….

Happy Anniversary of Indonesia Independence Day.

By Sapteka from Bali Island, http://www.sapteka.net

Kite Flying in Sanur Beach

On June 08, 2008, Rama and Krisna bought a new kite at Ketut Sumitha’s shop. The shop is located at Nusakambangan Street, in front of Erlangga Art Shop, Denpasar, Bali. They chose Be-bean type kite (a “fish”-form traditional kite). The kite was made from plastic with bamboo stick frame and it cost Rp 7,000. It was not a big one, but they didn’t know where to fly it. I told them to fly it in Sanur Beach since the wind was strong enough to fly the kite. They agreed to go to the beach and asked me to accompany them.

Sanur Beach has some entry points. We decided to enter the beach via Pantai Karang Street. Pantai Karang (Karang Beach) is our favorite place to visit in Sanur Beach. The Honorary Consulate of Hungary is also located in this street. We love this beach since it has a sea wave barrier, make it safe for us to swim. There is also a changing room with shower here.

Rama and I were swimming for a while at the beach while Krisna flews the kite alone. Krisna made a pivot string for kite and then he flew it easily since the wind was strong and its exact pivot point. The kite moved to left and right with balance. We loved to see our kite flying.

Well, I think Sanur Beach is also a good place for kite flying and Ketut Sumitha is a good kite maker.

By Sapteka, http://www.sapteka.net

The “Dewa Yadnya” Set – Collection Of Bali Museum

The term Dewa Yadnya means the religious ceremony dedicated to God in all of His manifestation which is carried out in a temple or other holy place. The Dewa Yadnya is one Panca Mahayadnya (Five Great Yadnya) as describes in Taittriya Aranyaka 2.10. The Dewa Yadnya in Bali includes the ceremonies such as Memungkah or Ngenteg Linggih, a ceremony performed when using a building for the first time or renovating a temple. Odalan, a ceremony performed every 210 days. Betara Turun Kabeh, a ceremony conducted every one year of Saka Calender. Panca Wali Krama , the ceremony dedicated to God every five years of Saka Calender. Eka Dasa Rudra, every 100 years of Saka Calender.

The Dewa Yadnya set – collection of Bali Museum consists of a number of Pratima (certain God statuettes), Pralingga (mythological of God’s vehicle), Janggawari (a construction used to lay down the Pratima in the purification procession ceremony towards the sea or water resources), and a few of pots to keep the Tirtha (Holy Water).

Dewa Yadnya Set

I will tell you about Pratima and Pralingga collected by Bali Museum. Some items of Pratima are: Rambut Sedana, Dewi Saraswati ( Goddess Saraswati ), and also Siwa and Durga Mounted On A Bull.

Rambut Sedana is a Pratima to worship the God of Wealth. It is assembled by chinese kepeng coins. Rambut Sedana is beloved by merchants.

The Pratima of Rambut Sedana

Dewi Saraswati is the Goddess of knowledge, music and art. The Pratima of Dewi Saraswati is worshiped to bless the holy scriptures and literatures being held by Hindu family. The adoration is also to protect and avoid the devotees from laziness and unawareness.

Pratima of Dewi Saraswati

Siwa and Durga Mounted on A Bull is another Pratima displayed at Bali Museum. In Hinduism, Siwa is one of the Trimurti ( the three primary aspects of divine ). According to the Trimurti system, the creator is Brahma, the maintainer or preserver is Wisnu, and the destroyer or transformer is Siwa. Meanwhile Durga is demon-fighting of Siwa’s wife, Goddess Parwati, as described in Markandeya Purana.

Siwa and Durga Mounted On A Bull

Pralingga Macan is the God’s vehicle in Tiger form. Tiger is the vehicle of Goddess Durga. According to Markandeya Purana, the form of Durga was created as a warrior goddess to fight a demon called Mahishasura. The Goddess Durga rode Her tiger and killed Mahishasura with Her trident.

Pralingga Macan - Flickr

One can learn more about Dewa Yadnya and spirituality at Bali Museum.

By Sapteka, http://www.sapteka.net/

Bali Museum

On May 12, 2008, I went to Bali Museum in Denpasar City, Province of Bali, Indonesia. Bali Museum is located at Mayor Wisnu Street, Denpasar. You can easily reach the museum since it is located in the center of the city of Denpasar.

Bali Museum has several buildings:

  • Tabanan Building.

Tabanan Building was a contribution from the royal family of Tabanan Kingdom. Its architecture is of Tabanan style representing that of south Bali in general. In former time such building was used to store the wealth and valuable properties of the king in the form of art objects as well as sacred equipments and tools.

The width of Tabanan Building is 155 meter square meters with two roofs, one under the other like meru shrine. Its original form is : a two-roof building, with one elevated room at the center surrounded by a solid wall (now only a glass bar), and equipped with a door in front and two small windows on the right and left hand sides of the wall. The surrounding and lower leveled veranda is equipped with a number of poles at its edge to support its roof. The space between the two roofs is solidly blocked to keep safe all objects stored inside.

  • Karangasem Building.

The name of this building is taken from the name of Karangasem regency of east Bali who has built this building in year 1925 for the Bali Museum. This building is in the form of the Balai Penangkilan (a meeting place) in the king’s palace of Karangasem with architecture of east part of Bali which has combined with the temple style and modified in accordance to museum’s need.

The Karangasem Building collects many items such as Wuku Calendar, Palelintangan (Bali Astrological Calendar), and Lontar Manuscripts (Manuscripts written at palm leaf cut into length about 20-40 cm).

  • Buleleng Building.

The name of this building is taken from the name of the Buleleng Regency of the north part of Bali who has presented this building to the Bali Museum in year 1932. The building is represents the style of a temple pagoda ( meru ) with the architecture of north part of Bali style which is normally built in the temple and has modified in accordance to the museum’s need.

The Buleleng Building displays traditional spinning wheel and loom. On Balinese loom, the warp is stretched between a heavy wooden structure and a sort of yoke shaped like a bow held by woman’s back.

  • Beji.
  • Resting Pavilion.
  • Split Gate.
  • Covered Gate.
  • The Wooden Bell Tower.
  • East Building.

The East Building of Bali Museum is built in 1969 by Pelita Project held by the Government of Indonesia during Suharto era. This two-stories building displays various pre-historical and historical collection of Bali, and also the development of art painting and sculpture in Bali since 16th century until present time.

What’s inside the East Building of Bali Museum ? Here you can find Stone Throne, Sarcophagus, Site Map of Bali Pre-historical Period, Hunting and Cutting Things of The Paleolithicum Period, Stone Tools of The Neolithicum Period, Sharp Weapons of The Paleomethalic Period and Traditional Weapons of The Modern Period.

The East Building of Bali Museum is also collecting Stone and Bronze Statues of The Ancient Period.

The Twin Lingga, Sandstone Statue, Priest Statue, Bronze Light, Jars and some types of ceramic of The Middle Period are also displayed at The East Building of Bali Museum.

  • Library Building.
  • Tickets Counter.
  • Security.
  • Conservation Lab.
  • Auditorium.
  • Administration Building.
  • Entrance Gate.

This is an interesting museum to visit. Do not forget to visit Bali Museum.

By Sapteka, http://www.sapteka.net

INTRODUCTION TO PLD

PLD Terms

A chip that contain relatively large amounts of logic circuitry with a structure that is not fixed, called Programmable Logic Device (PLD). In general, a programmable logic device is a circuit, which can be configured by the user to perform a logic function. Unlike a logic gate, which has a fixed function, a PLD has an undefined function at the time of manufacture. Before the PLD can be used in a circuit, it must be programmed (reconfigured). PLD provides specific function, such as electronic decoder, driver, counter and other function a system must perform.

 

PLD Block Diagram

Figure 1. PLD Block Diagram

Programmable logic device (PLD) can be changed at any time to perform any number of functions. The designers may use inexpensive software to develop, simulate and test their design. After that, the designers can test PLD in a real circuit. They also can change the circuit easily to their satisfaction. This can be done because PLD is based on rewriteable memory technology.

In middle 1978, the inventors of Monolithic Memories, Inc (MMI), John Birkner and H.T. Chua introduced Programmable Array Logic (PAL). This device equipped with PROM (Programmable read-Only Memory) and additional logic gates.The software design tool is PALASM (PAL Assembler).This software makes PAL easy to use. MMI made agreements with AMD, National, and TI to established the 20-pin bipolar devices (PAL16L8, PAL16R8, etc).

Another innovation of PAL invented by Lattice Semiconductor is Generic Array Logic (GAL). The GAL is erasable and re-programmable. It is also able to take place of many PAL devices and also wider PAL original function. These advantages makes easier for designers to prototype and change their design.

In general, there are three different type of PLD: Simple Programmable Logic Device (SPLD), Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD), and Field Programmable Logic Device (FPGA). The SPLD device typically contains about 600 or fewer gates, meanwhile the CPLD contains up to 10,000 gates. The FPGA contains the highest amount of gates and highest performance. The FPGA may contains hundred of thousands gates. Therefore, CPLD and FPGA are often referred as High Capacity Programmable Logic Device (HCPLD).CPLD is often used in portable applications such as mobile phone, personal digital assistant, etc. Meanwhile FPGA is used widely in data processing and storage, instrumentation system, telecommunications, and digital signal processing.

Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) is a high-density programmable device generally based on the PAL or SPLD architecture. Its routing is more predictable timing than FPGA.

Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a single chip contains gate array, with general-purpose metal tracks, often with variable length segments or routing tracks. The device is programmed by turning on the switches, which makes connections between circuit nodes and the metal routing tracks. The term Programmable Logic means that a logic element whose function is not restricted to a specific function. The designer can program it using a programming software tool. The term Gate Array means the gates are fabricated in a 2 dimensional array on a die to form a specific function such as phase lock loops, delay-locked loops, SRAM blocks and others.

The connection between circuit nodes and the metal routing tracks may be made by a transistor switch (which is controlled by a programmable memory element) or by an antifuse. An antifuse is an electrical device that performs the opposite function to a fuse. Whereas a fuse starts with a low resistance and is designed to permanently break an electrically conductive path (typically when the current through the path exceeds a specified limit), an antifuse starts with a high resistance and is designed to permanently create an electrically conductive. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifuse)